Small metabolic modules and biological processes with significantly altered abundances in the IBD microbiome. (a, b) Small (typically 5 to 20 gene) KEGG modules (a) and independently defined biological processes from the Gene Ontology (b) were assessed for significant association with disease and ileal involvement as in Figure 4. Metabolism related to oxidative stress (for example, glutathione and sulfate transport) and for pathobiont-like auxotrophy (for example, N-acetylgalactosamine and amino acid uptake) is increased, while several basic biosynthetic processes are less abundant.
Morgan et al. Genome Biology 2012 13:R79 doi:10.1186/gb-2012-13-9-r79