Open Access Highly Accessed Open Badges Software

Apollo: a sequence annotation editor

SE Lewis12*, SMJ Searle3, N Harris24, M Gibson12, V Iyer3, J Richter5, C Wiel12, L Bayraktaroglu6, E Birney7, MA Crosby6, JS Kaminker12, BB Matthews6, SE Prochnik12, CD Smith12, JL Tupy12, GM Rubin1245, S Misra12, CJ Mungall5 and ME Clamp3

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Molecular and Cellular Biology, Life Sciences Addition, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3200, USA

2 FlyBase-Berkeley, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3200, USA

3 Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire, CB10 1SA, UK

4 Genome Sciences Department, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA

5 Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA

6 FlyBase-Harvard, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, Harvard University, Biological Laboratories, 16 Divinity Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02138-2020, USA

7 European Bioinformatics Institute, Hinxton, Cambridgeshire, CB10 1SD, UK

For all author emails, please log on.

Genome Biology 2002, 3:research0082-0082.14  doi:10.1186/gb-2002-3-12-research0082

This article is part of a series of refereed research articles from Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project, FlyBase and colleagues, describing Release 3 of the Drosophila genome, which are freely available at

Published: 23 December 2002


The well-established inaccuracy of purely computational methods for annotating genome sequences necessitates an interactive tool to allow biological experts to refine these approximations by viewing and independently evaluating the data supporting each annotation. Apollo was developed to meet this need, enabling curators to inspect genome annotations closely and edit them. FlyBase biologists successfully used Apollo to annotate the Drosophila melanogaster genome and it is increasingly being used as a starting point for the development of customized annotation editing tools for other genome projects.