Regulation of circadian exons in the Vipr2-/- mouse liver. (a) Expression of Dbp, Per2 and Arntl (Bmal1) in wild-type (wt) and Vipr2-/- mouse liver over circadian time as measured by QPCR (GE, gene expression). (b) Alternative splicing (AS) for four selected circadian exons. (c) Transcript-level expression for the same exons (GE, gene expression). Expression is expressed as fold-change relative to the wild-type sample at CT0. At each time point, n = 3 and error bars represent standard error of the mean. In all cases, two-way ANOVA revealed a significant (P ≤ 0.05) interaction effect between time and genotype. Subsequent one-way ANOVA of individual time-courses revealed a significant effect of time in all cases, reflecting their phase-advance, apart from Pcsk4 gene expression in the Vipr2-/- mutant, reflecting its apparent arrhythmia.
McGlincy et al. Genome Biology 2012 13:R54 doi:10.1186/gb-2012-13-6-r54