The consequences of specific versus non-specific editing. (a) Short, imperfect duplexes, such as Drosophila synaptotagmin-I, are specifically edited leading to transcript and peptide recoding. (b) Long, perfect dsRNA substrates, including those formed by nearby transposons in opposite orientation (green), are hyper-edited, leading to fewer or edited siRNAs. This may alter gene expression through RISC (yellow) targeting, but evidence also links the RNAi pathway to chromatin regulation.
Savva et al. Genome Biology 2012 13:252 doi:10.1186/gb-2012-13-12-252