Additional file 5.

The increasing complexity of the central dogma of molecular biology. Top: the originally proposed central dogma, with unidirectional information flow. Bottom: the current view of the central dogma, wherein information content can flow backwards or sideways with RT, RNA-binding proteins (RbPs) and RNA editing. In addition, information can be copied within each of the three realms: genetic (blue) copying such as with transposable elements; transcriptional (red) copying with ribozymes and rich levels of RNA regulation using small RNAs (micro, piwi, si, viRNAs); and proteomic (green) copying using prions. Information can also move between generations or be transmitted between species, such as with epigenetic marks, viRNAs and prions (gray area below).

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Saletore et al. Genome Biology 2012 13:175   doi:10.1186/gb-2012-13-10-175