Email updates

Keep up to date with the latest news and content from Genome Biology and BioMed Central.

This article has not been peer reviewed.

Open Badges Deposited research article

The functional genomic response of developing embryonic submandibular glands to NFκB inhibition

Michael Melnick*, Haiming Chen, Yan Min Zhou and Tina Jaskoll

Author Affiliations

Laboratory for Developmental Genetics, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0641, USA

For all author emails, please log on.

Genome Biology 2001, 2:preprint0005-preprint0005.44  doi:10.1186/gb-2001-2-6-preprint0005

This was the first version of this article to be made available publicly. The full version of this preprint has been removed at the request of the authors. A peer-reviewed and modified version is now available in full at

The electronic version of this article is the complete one and can be found online at:

Received:27 April 2001
Published:4 May 2001

© 2001 BioMed Central Ltd



The proper balance between epithelial cell proliferation, quiescence, and apoptosis during development is mediated by the specific temporal and spatial appearance of transcription factors, growth factors, cytokines, caspases, etc. Since prior studies suggest the importance of transcription factor NF?B during embryonic submandibular salivary gland (SMG) development, we attempted to delineate the emergent dynamics of a cognate signaling network by studying the molecular patterns and phenotypic outcomes of interrupted NF?B signaling in embryonic SMG explants.


SN50-mediated inhibition of NF?B signaling in SMG explants results in a highly significant increase in apoptosis and decrease in cell proliferation. Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) analyses of proteomic and transcriptomic assays identify specific transcripts and proteins with altered expression that best discriminate control from SN50-treated SMGs with 100% sensitivity and specificity. These include PCNA, GR, BMP1, BMP3b, Chk1, Caspase 6, E2F1, c-Raf, and JNK-1, as well as several others of lessor importance. Thus, it is apparent that inhibition of NF?B nuclear translocation alters the expression of a cognate genetic network with broadly related, rather than independent, components.


Morphological and functional genomic analyses subsequent to inhibition of NF?B nuclear translocation indicate that NF?B-mediated transcription is critical to embryonic SMG developmental homeostasis. Relative to understanding complex genetic networks and organogenesis, our results demonstrate the importance of evaluating the gene, protein, and activated protein expression of multiple components from multiple pathways within broad functional categories.

Deposited research article